Ukrainian Canadian Internment Educational documents

Remembering the 600 internees of Castle Mountain Internment Camp, Crag and Canyon, August 24, 2020

Centenary of the End of Canada's First World War Internment Operations, UCC Saskatchewan Visnyk, Summer 2020

A forgotten piece of Canadian History, by Peter Manastyrsky, Winnipeg Sun, 20 June 2020

The Hon. Andrew Scheer, Leader of Canada’s Conservatives and of the Official Opposition, issues statement to mark 100 years since the end of Canada’s first national internment operations during the First World War, June 20, 2020

James Bezan, MP, issues statement to mark 100 years since the end of Canada’s first national internment operations during the First World War, June 20, 2020

Yvan Baker, MP, Remembering the 100th Anniversary of the End of Canada's First National Internment Operations, June 20, 2020

Canada marks a most unsettling centenary, by Lubomyr Luciuk, Winnipeg Free Press, June 19, 2020

Marking the centenary of Canada’s first national internment operations, by Marco Levytsky, The Ukrainian Weekly, June 19, 2020

The story of Nick Sakaliuk, by Lubomyr Luciuk, The Ukrainian Weekly, June 12, 2020

Internment Centenary commemorated, New Pathway - Ukrainian News, June 11, 2020

Internment centenary provides lessons for today, by Marco Levytsky, New Pathway - Ukrainian News, June 8, 2020

End of Mara internment camp to be commemorated, Salmon Arm Observer, June 7, 2020

BC’s Internment Camps, Royal BC Museum

June 20, 2020 marks the 100th anniversary of the closing of the first wave of internment camps in Canada and British Columbia.

CONFINED, Reflections on Internment in Canada during the First World War, Canadian Centre for the Great War

Online exhibit focuses on internment of Ukrainians during World War I, The Ukrainian Weekly, May 29, 2020

A war prisoner’s story, by Benjamin Weistra, The Lethbridge Herald, March 24, 2020

Vernon part of end of internment camp ceremonies, Vernon Morning Star, February 24, 2020

Enemy Alien A True Story of Life behind Barbed Wire, a book by Kassandra Luciuk and Nicole Marie Burton, February 12, 2020

This graphic history tells the story of Canada’s first national internment operations through the eyes of John Boychuk, an internee held in Kapuskasing from 1914 to 1917. The story is based on Boychuk’s actual memoir, which is the only comprehensive internee testimony in existence.



The novel follows Boychuk from his arrest in Toronto to Kapuskasing, where he spends just over three years. It details the everyday struggle of the internees in the camp, including forced labour and exploitation, abuse from guards, malnutrition, and homesickness. It also documents moments of internee agency and resistance, such as work slowdowns and stoppages, hunger strikes, escape attempts, and riots.



Little is known about the lives of the incarcerated once the paper trail stops, but Enemy Alien subsequently traces Boychuk’s parole, his search for work, his attempts to organize a union, and his ultimate settlement in Winnipeg. Boychuk’s reflections emphasize the much broader context in which internment takes place. This was not an isolated incident, but rather part and parcel of Canadian nation building and the directives of Canada’s settler colonial project.



Paperback / softback, 96 pages

ISBN 9781771134729

Coming March 2020

It happened, son of interned Ukrainian says, St. Albert Today, January 10, 2020

That Never Happened, Now on DVD, Armistice Films, December 6, 2019

The film reveals the story of Canada's first national internment operations between 1914-1920 when over 88,000 people were forced to register, and more than 8,500 were wrongfully imprisoned in internment camps across Canada, because of the country they came from. In 1954, the public records were destroyed, and in the 1980's a few brave men and women began working to reclaim this chapter in history and ensure future generations would know about it.  THAT NEVER HAPPENED was released theatrically across Canada last year, and was the Official Selection of the Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations in September 2018. The film screened for the Human Rights Council in Geneva, as part of celebrations marking the 70th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Right

The troubling story of internment in Canada, St. Albert Today, November 29, 2019

"That Never Happened" on CBC Documentary Chanel, November 20, 2019

Film looks at Canadian Internment Camps, Yorkton This Week, November 16, 2019

Internment monument unveiled in St. Paul, New Pathway/Ukrainian News, October 8, 2019

Sculpture, ceremony preserve the memory of Ukrainian Canadian internment, Jeff Gaye, Respect News, October 8, 2019

Looking through the wire, Opinion, Jeff Gaye, Respect News, October 8, 2019

A history of Canada's first national internment operations, Respect News, October 8, 2019

Internment monument unveiled in St. Paul, Alberta, The Ukrainian Weekly, October 4, 2019

21 Strands represents Ukranian-Canadian history, St. Paul Journal, October 2nd, 2019

New monument honours unlawfully imprisoned immigrants, St. Paul Journal, September 24, 2019

"Enemy Aliens: Internment in Canada 1914-1920" Fort Henry National Historic Site, St. Lawrence Parks Commission final project report, 2019

During the First World War, Fort Henry was used as an internment camp. Currently Fort Henry houses a travelling exhibit on permanent load titled "Enemy Aliens: Internment in Canada 1914 - 1920", which was developed by the Canadian War Museum in partnership with the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation.

Amherst museum gets exhibit about First World War internment camps, The Chronicle Herald, July 21, 2019

Local artist of Ukrainian descent tells story of Canada’s immigrant internment camps, by Angela Brown, The Battlefords NOW, July 5, 2019

Remembering a forgotten piece of Nova Scotia history; 100th anniversary of POW camp’s closure commemorated, The Chronicle Herald, Amherst, NS, July 3, 2019

Amherst event will mark 100 years since POW camp closed, CBC News, July 1, 2019

'We can't forget' Honouring thousands held in Canadian concentation camps, Rocky Mountain Outlook, June 27, 2019 by Tanya Foubert

Yoho WWI internment camp site memorialized and consecrated, New Pathway - Ukrainian News, June 24, 2019

Strike casualties were immigrants searching for brighter future, Peter J. Manastersky, Winnipeg Free Press, June 21, 2019

Концентраційні табори Канади / Canada’s First World War Internment Camps, Ukrainian People Journal 2019

Left in the Cold, Canada's First Internment Camps, Calgary Journal, January 29, 2019

Thinking about Labour and the Carceal State in Canada, March 14-15, 2019 Workshop, Brock University

The Stories Were Not Told: Canada's First World War Internment Camps' author Sandra Semchuk, Feb 7, 2019, CBC Radio Calgary, The Homestretch with Doug Dirks

From 1914 to 1920, thousands of men who immigrated to Canada from Europe were called 'enemy aliens' and sent to internment camps during the First World War. Some families were imprisoned as well. Sandra Semchuk explores that dark period in our history in her new book, 'The Stories Were Not Told: Canada's First World War Internment Camps' -- inspired by a stop at Castle Mountain near Banff. Sandra joined host Doug Dirks in studio.

Imprisoning Our Own: First World War Internment in Winnipeg (Part 1) Dr. Leah Morton, Assistant Curator (History), Manitoba Museum, January 2, 2019

Imprisoning Our Own: Caught At Emerson (Part 2) Dr. Leah Morton, Assistant Curator (History), Manitoba Museum, January 9, 2019

Канадійска неволя: Canada’s Internment of Ukrainians, 1914–1920, Poster by Orion Keresztesi, Essay by Kassandra Luciuk

'Yes, this happened': How Lubomyr Luciuk found out about the internment camp in his hometown, CBC News, November 8, 2018

Saskatchewan-raised filmmaker Boyko explores a 'shocking' Canadian history, The Saskatoon Star Phoenix, November 8, 2018

Ukrainian Internment Documentary, Ottawa Morning with Robyn Bresnahan, CBC Listen, November 8, 2018

Did you know Ukrainian Canadians were interned during the First World War? The little known story is now the subject of a film, Victoria Ahearn, The Canadian Press, The Toronto Star, November 7, 2018

Fernie marks 100th anniversary of internment camp closure, October 27, 2018 The Free Press, Fernie, British Columbia

"That Never Happened" Tue, Oct 23, 2018: Ryan Boyko joins Global News Morning Calgary to talk about a documentary he directed charting Canada’s first national internment operation.

Documentary "That Never Happned" fights to have audiences remember the shameful past of Canada's first national internment operations, Calgary Herald, October 19, 2018

Documentary reveals Fernie’s role in WWI internment operations, October 17, 2018, The Free Press, Fernie, BC

Discoverying Rewritten History, by David McConkey, September 24, 2018 Brandon Sun

Prisonniers de la terre promise, 8 septembre 2018, LEDEVOIR

“That never happened:” Film reveals the hidden history of Canada’s First World War internment operations, September 6, 2018, Canadian Geographic

Uncovering a Canadian Injustice, Interview with Dr. L. Luciuk, MUSE Magazine, Canadian Museums Association, Sep-Oct 2018

Spirit Lake: l’assemblée publique est reportée, 22 Août 2018, De La Vallee-De-L'or Le Citoyen

Exhibit sheds light on dark part of Jasper’s past, The Jasper Local, page B1, August 15, 2018 Issue 127

The Jasper-Yellowhead Museum and Archives’ latest exhibit “Enemy Aliens” traveled from the Canadian War Museum and explores a part of the nation’s First World War history that’s not often discussed.

The Internment of Ukrainian Canadians During the First World War, The Vintage News, Aug 11, 2018 Patricia Grimshaw

New museum exhibit shows history of Canada’s internment camps, Jasper, Alberta, August 8, 2018

The Jasper-Yellowhead Museum and Archives’ latest exhibit “Enemy Aliens” traveled from the Canadian War Museum and explores a part of the nation’s First World War history that’s not often discussed.

Memorial Garden Opened at Site of World War 1 Internment Camp, New Pathway - Ukrainian News, June 7, 2018

Priest, Patriot, Prisoner of War, and Prelate: Petro Kamenetsky (1891–1973), Religious Information Service of Ukraine, September 13, 2016

Priest, Patriot, Prisoner of War, and Prelate - Petro Kamenetsky (1891 - 1973), Annales Ecclesiae Ucrainae, September 11, 2016

Spirit Lake Internee Cemetery Almost Lost To The Forest, March 27, 2016

Tribute to Spirit Lake Internment Captured in Musical Compositions, March 27, 2016

Canadian Heritage Minister Joly Asked for Help, An Appeal, The Internee Cemetery at Spirit Lake (La Ferme), Quebec. February 9, 2016

On February 9, 2016, the Minister for Canadian Heritage, Mélanie Joly, is being asked for help in saving a Great War cemetery holding the remains of at least 16 "enemy aliens."

Ukrainian association seeks to protect Spirit Lake Internment Camp cemetery, February 22, 2016, The McGill Daily

Campaign revived to designate Quebec wartime cemetery a historic site, February 19, 2016

Un bâtiment historique sous le pic des démolisseurs, February 16, 2016

100 years since first death in Kapuskasing internment camp, CBC News, June 1, 2015

Render unto Ceasar, The Greek Catholic Church's Reaction to the Internment of Ukrainians in Canada during WWI, A. McVay, Logos, Vol 56, 2015

WWI Saskatchewan internment victims honoured almost a century later, Global News, October 29, 2014

Canada's internment of 'enemy aliens' during World War One. www.france24.com September 24, 2014

It's a piece of history unknown to many, even in Canada. During World War 1 thousands of people were interned in 24 camps across the country. Their place of birth was their only crime: being from the Austro-Hungarian Empire was enough for the Canadian government to consider them as subjects of an enemy country. But the stories of these men and women - most of them Ukrainian - have begun to resurface, thanks in part to the work being done at memorial sites like here in Spirit Lake, Quebec.

An Open Letter to Mr. Stuart Murray, CEO, Canadian Museum For Human Rights, 15 September 2014

Recalling Canada's First National Internment Operations, 1914 - 1920

Fulfilling Mary's Dream, The Kingston Whig Standard, August 22, 2014

Grave restoration shines spotlight on dark period of Vernon history, Global News, August 11, 2014

Internment camp memorial unveiled at Exhibition Park, Lethbridge Global News, October 29, 2013

Ceremony honours those held in internment camps, Lethbridge, Global News, October 29, 2013

Tue, Oct 29: Southern Alberta is rich in history, and Lethbridge is no exception. Internment camps were set up in our city during the first and second world wars. From 1914 to 1916 an internment camp was set up at the exhibition grounds. Quinn Campbell reports.

Federal internment camp exhibit opens in Banff, Global News, September 13, 2013

First World War exhibit opens in Banff National Park, CTV Calgary, September 13, 2013

First World War internment camps a ‘difficult scar’ for Canadian Ukrainians, Global News, September 2, 2012

The last survivor finds peace, Globe and Mail, August 26, 2005

Munson Internment Camp, Alberta Internment Camp unveiling program, August 5, 2002

Kapuskasing Internment Camp Plaque, Ontario Heritage Foundation, July 2, 1996

At 2 p.m. on July 2, 1996, an Ontario Heritage Foundation provincial plaque commemorating the Kapuskasing Internment Camp was unveiled in the park outside the Ron Morel Memorial Museum, Macpherson Street at Hwy 11, Kapuskasing.

Kapuskasing Internment Camp 1914-1920

Plaque Location: The District of Cochrane, The Town of Kapuskasing. At the Ron Morel Memorial Museum, on McPherson Avenue just south of the Trans-Canada Highway

Banff Internees Still Wonder Why by Bob Bergen, Calgary Herald, August 13, 1995

Ukrainians Recall Brutalities by Lubomyr Luciuk, Calgary Herald, August 11, 1995

Castle Mountain Internment Camp, Banff National Park, Topical Survey, July 1994

Lead, Follow or Get out of the Way: How and why the Civil Liberties Commission became the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association, by Lubomyr Luciuk, Studenetz, March 1993, page 3

Sir William Otter and Internment Operations in Canada during the First World War, Desmond Morton, The Canadian Historical Review, March 1974

Canada's First National Internment Operations, 1914 - 1920 pamphlet

La première campagne nationale d'internement au Canada, 1914-1920 brochure

Перші всенаціональні операції інтернування в Канаді, 1914-1920 брошура

Map of Canada's First Internment Camps

Canada's First National Internment Camps Opening and Closing Dates

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