Property of Prisoners 34. Prisoners of war are only allowed to have in their possession such sums of money or other property as the Commandant may from time to time allow. 35. All other money or property belonging to prisoners of war will be in charge of an officer for that purpose who will keep an account.
Henry Lambert, British Under Secretary of State, February 8, 1915, British Foreign Office 383/1
From London instructions were sent out on February 8, 1915 which called for the governments of British overseas dominions and colonies to bring their practices in regard to the treatment of "special classes" of interned enemy subjects into conformity with those pursued in Great Britain. Signing for the under secretary of state, Henry Lambert of the Colonial Office noted that "preferential treatment" should be accorded not only to "inhabitants of French extraction of Alsace and Lorraine," but also to "the following races which are considered to be hostile to Austro-Hungarian rule: Czechs, Croats, Italians (from Trieste and the Trentino), Poles, Roumanians, Ruthenes, Serbs, Slovaks, and Slovenes."
The War Measures Act, August 22, 1914, Library and Archives Canada
Note: The German word "Ruthene" was introduced in 1772 to describe the Ukrainian population of the Austro-Hungarian population, being translated into English as "Ruthenian". In Canada, "Ruthenian" preceded the use use of the word "Ukrainian."
The Hague Convention, International Committee of the Red Cross, October 18, 1907
Signed in 1907, the Hague Convention guaranteed the rights of prisoners of war held in camps. The rules of the Convention were not always or completely respected by Canada during the First World War. The Convention made a distinction between prisoners of war and civilians, but the Canadian authorities to a large degree ignored this distinction. The twenty-four camps that accommodated internees were mostly located away from cities, such as remote areas in the Rocky Mountains.
Official publication of the Government of Canada, notably containing Orders in Council.From the outset, the Canadian government adopted many measures by Order in Council to respond to the new exigencies of war, including the restriction of some civil liberties. Canadian authorities were given the right to arrest, to detain, to censor, to exclude, to deport, to control or to capture all persons and property considered as a potential threat to Canada. Any resident not naturalized who had been a citizen of the now enemy states were considered de facto "enemy illegal residents." Some of these persons were ultimately subject to detention in camps. The War Measures Act was subsequently approved by Parliament. The Act in addition to authorizing future actions, also legitimized the decisions implemented in the early days of the war by the Privy Council (Cabinet).
Thematic Guides - Internment Camps in Canada during the First and Second World Wars, Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada holds an extensive collection of governmental and private records generally consisting of textual documents on paper or on microfilm as well as publications and films about internment camps located in Canada during both World Wars (1914-1918 and 1939-1945). Please note that this guide relates mainly to the internment camps in Canada. At the end of this guide, you will find a section related to internment camps abroad.
Library and Archives Canada, Internment Camps: First World War
This guide lists the relevant sources in the Government Archives Division for the study of people who were confined in internment camps in Canada during the Fist World War. The guide contains references to German, Austrian, Hungarian, and 'Ukraihian prisoners of war. These references were retrieved from RG 2 Privy Council Office, RG 6 Secretary of State, RG 7 Gove;rnor General's Office, RG 9 Militia and Defence, RG,;L~ Parliament, RG 18 RCMP, RG 24 National Defence, RG 76 Immigration;.;RG ',117 Office of the Custodian of Enemy Property, MG 26 Borden'I>apers, and MG 30 Otter Collection. The references in this guide in,a9dt~ion to providing the appropriate RG and MG numbers also provide the volume number, file number, description of file contents,a.i1d dates.
Laying Up Trouble For The Country, Calgary Daily Herald, Jan 27, 1899
Only a few years after these Ukrainian pioneer settlers arrived in the North-West Territories, a clergyman, Father Moris, expressed his loathing for them in Calgary’s Daily Herald (January 27, 1899):
“As for the Galicians I have not met a single person in the whole of the North West who is sympathetic to them. They are, from the point of view of civilization, 10 times lower than the Indians. They have not the least idea of sanitation. In their personal habits and acts [they] resemble animals, and even in the streets of Edmonton, when they come to market, men, women, and children, would, if unchecked, turn the place into a common sewer.”
Library and Archives Canada, RG 117 Vol 19, File: Prisoners of 1914-1918 War, Reel: Earnings and Cash Balances (223), 1938
Statement of Earnings and Cash Subject to Claims by Ex-Prisoners of War; Proof of Figures Shown on Statement Attached with Balances in Cash Book; Statement of Earnings and Cash Subject to Claim by Ex-Prisoners of War as per Individual Ledger