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© 2018 by Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association. Website by BizFront.

canada's first national internment operations of 1914 - 1920

PHOTO GALLERY

Map of Internment Camps
Author of photo: By P199 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7608370
List of Internment Camps
Canada's last known survivor of the internment operations, Mary Manko Haskett (centre)
Canada's last known survivor of the internment operations, Mary Manko Haskett (centre) with Dr L Luciuk (left) and UCCLA's chairman, John B Gregorovich (right), in Ottawa, March 1993
Private William Perchaluk 259008, Burns Cemetery, Calgary, Alberta
William Perchaluk is buried at the Burns Cemetery in Calgary, Alberta. Please see the link below for more information on his life.
Saskatoon Musee Ukraina, November 2019 I
Internment display at the Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Musee Ukraina, November 2019
St. Paul, Alberta,  Internment Statue
St. Paul, Alberta, Internment Statue "21 Strands", Unveiled on September 28, 2019.
Twenty One strands of barbed wire was used on the Internee Enclosure at Castle Mountain Internment Camp, Banff National Park during Canada's first national internment operations of 1914 to 1920.
St. Paul, Alberta, Internment Panel
Unveiled on September 28, 2019
St. Paul, AB, Internment Blessing
Commemorative Ceremony/Panachyda for the Internment Statue and Interpretive Panel by Rev. Fr. Peter Haugen of the All Saints Ukrainian Orthodox Church, and Fr. Andrij Nykyforuk of the Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary Ukrainian Catholic Church on September 28, 2019.
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ARCHIVAL PHOTOS

Ukrainian pioneer settlers
Ukrainian pioneer settlers en route to Edna-Star, Alberta, from Quebec City, 1897 (National Archives of Canada)
Promises of free land.
Potential Ukrainian immigrants were promised 160 acres of free land.
Ukrainian internees at Castle Mtn
"In the enclosure," Ukrainian internees at Castle Mountain, Banff National Park, Alberta (GWH Millican Collection, Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta)
25 below under Rundle Mountain
"25 below under Rundle Mountain". Internees in Banff National Park. From the book "In My Charge" The Canadian Internment Camp Photographs of Sergeant William Buck. L.Y. Luciuk and B. Sydoruk
New Arrivals Going In, Castle Mountain,
New Arrivals Going In, Castle Mountain, Banff, Alberta, Sgt. William Buck collection, Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies, Banff, Alberta
A rough trail, near Castle Mountain, Alb
A rough trail, near Castle Mountain, Banff National Park, Alberta
Road building
"Road building," construction of motor road from Banff to Lake Louise, Alberta, circa 1915 (GWH Millican Collection, Glenbow Museum, NA-1870-77)
Corporal Filip Konowal
Corporal Filip Konowal, a recipient of the Victoria Cross for his valour during the Battle of Hill 70, near Lens, France, August 1917, the honourary patron of Branch #360 of The Royal Canadian Legion
Women and children internees
Women and children internees at Spirit Lake, Abitibi, Quebec (National Archives of Canada, PA 170620)
Woodcutters at Spirit Lake, Quebec
Woodcutters at Spirit Lake Internment Camp, Abitibi, Quebec
Spirit Lake Internment Camp, Quebec
Spirit Lake Internment Camp, Abitibi, Quebec
Spirit Lake Internment Camp
Spirit Lake Internment Camp, Abitibi, Quebec, ca 1914-20. (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/PA-170423)
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EDUCATIONAL DOCUMENTS

A war prisoner’s story, by Benjamin Weistra, The Lethbridge Herald, March 24, 2020

Vernon part of end of internment camp ceremonies, Vernon Morning Star, February 24, 2020

Enemy Alien A True Story of Life behind Barbed Wire, a book by Kassandra Luciuk and Nicole Marie Burton, February 12, 2020

This graphic history tells the story of Canada’s first national internment operations through the eyes of John Boychuk, an internee held in Kapuskasing from 1914 to 1917. The story is based on Boychuk’s actual memoir, which is the only comprehensive internee testimony in existence.

The novel follows Boychuk from his arrest in Toronto to Kapuskasing, where he spends just over three years. It details the everyday struggle of the internees in the camp, including forced labour and exploitation, abuse from guards, malnutrition, and homesickness. It also documents moments of internee agency and resistance, such as work slowdowns and stoppages, hunger strikes, escape attempts, and riots.

Little is known about the lives of the incarcerated once the paper trail stops, but Enemy Alien subsequently traces Boychuk’s parole, his search for work, his attempts to organize a union, and his ultimate settlement in Winnipeg. Boychuk’s reflections emphasize the much broader context in which internment takes place. This was not an isolated incident, but rather part and parcel of Canadian nation building and the directives of Canada’s settler colonial project.

  • Paperback / softback, 96 pages

  • ISBN 9781771134729

  • Coming March 2020

It happened, son of interned Ukrainian says, St. Albert Today, January 10, 2020

That Never Happened, Now on DVD, Armistice Films, December 6, 2019

 

THAT NEVER HAPPENED: Canada's First National Internment Operations

The film reveals the story of Canada's first national internment operations between 1914-1920 when over 88,000 people were forced to register, and more than 8,500 were wrongfully imprisoned in internment camps across Canada, because of the country they came from. In 1954, the public records were destroyed, and in the 1980's a few brave men and women began working to reclaim this chapter in history and ensure future generations would know about it. 

THAT NEVER HAPPENED was released theatrically across Canada last year, and was the Official Selection of the Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations in September 2018. The film screened for the Human Rights Council in Geneva, as part of celebrations marking the 70th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 

The troubling story of internment in Canada, St. Albert Today, November 29, 2019

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ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS

The War Measures Act, August 22, 1914, Library and Archives Canada

An act to confer certain powers upon the Governor in Council and to amend the immigration act .
Acts of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada

Full text of the law giving greater powers to the government of Canada during times of war
War measures act, 1914

Downloaded from:   http://www.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.9_08039

The Hague Convention, International Committee of the Red Cross, October 18, 1907

Signed in 1907, the Hague Convention guaranteed the rights of prisoners of war held in camps. The rules of the Convention were not always or completely respected by Canada during the First World War. The Convention made a distinction between prisoners of war and civilians, but the Canadian authorities to a large degree ignored this distinction. The twenty-four camps that accommodated internees were mostly located away from cities, such as remote areas in the Rocky Mountains.

The Canada Gazette

Official publication of the Government of Canada, notably containing Orders in Council.

Orders-in-Council, Library and Archives Canada

Official publication of the Government of Canada, notably containing Orders in Council.

From the outset, the Canadian government adopted many measures by Order in Council to respond to the new exigencies of war, including the restriction of some civil liberties. Canadian authorities were given the right to arrest, to detain, to censor, to exclude, to deport, to control or to capture all persons and property considered as a potential threat to Canada. Any resident not naturalized who had been a citizen of the now enemy states were considered de facto "enemy illegal residents." Some of these persons were ultimately subject to detention in camps. The War Measures Act was subsequently approved by Parliament. The Act in addition to authorizing future actions, also legitimized the decisions implemented in the early days of the war by the Privy Council (Cabinet).

Thematic Guides - Internment Camps in Canada during the First and Second World Wars, Library and Archives Canada

Library and Archives Canada holds an extensive collection of governmental and private records generally consisting of textual documents on paper or on microfilm as well as publications and films about internment camps located in Canada during both World Wars (1914-1918 and 1939-1945). Please note that this guide relates mainly to the internment camps in Canada. At the end of this guide, you will find a section related to internment camps abroad.

Bill C-331, Internment of Persons of Ukrainian Origin Recognition Act, November 25, 2005

A Private Member's Bill had been introduced by Mr. Inky Mark, MP, Conservative, Dauphin-Swan River-Marquette, on October 12, 2004 to address the issue of Canada's first national internment operations of 1914-1920. On November 23, 2005, the Bill had received the support of all Members of the House of Commons, and passed the Senate on November 25, 2005.  Bill C-331 received Royal Assent on November 25, 2005.

Castle Mountain Internment Camp, Banff National Park, Topical Survey, July 1994

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Internment books

Roll Call, Lest We Forget, compiled by Lubomyr L Luciuk, Natalka Yurieva and Roman Zakaluzny

Roll Call includes nearly 5,200 internees’ names, mined mainly but not exclusively from records preserved at the National Archives of Canada.

Roll Call Additions, Lest We Forget

Roll Call includes nearly 5,200 internees’ names, mined mainly but not exclusively from records preserved at the National Archives of Canada.

Without Just Cause, Canada's first national internment operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914-1920, Lubomyr Y Luciuk

In Fear of the Barbed Wire Fence, Canada's First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914-1920, Lubomyr Luciuk

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educational videos

St. Paul, Alberta, Internment Statue and Interpretive Panel Unveiling -October 13, 2019 Alberta Kontakt TV

Members of the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation (UCCLF) and its activist counterpart, the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (UCCLA), on Sat. Sept. 28, 2019, unveiled Canada’s newest monument dedicated to remembering the country’s first national internment operations, in St. Paul, located 200 kilometres east of Edmonton. Titled 21 Strands, the monument is unique, composing not just a trilingual educational (English-French-Ukrainian) plaque, but also an image of internees standing behind 21 horizontal lengths of Canadian barbed wire.

Yoho National Park, BC, Internment Camp Statue and Interpretive Panel Unveiling - June 22, 2019 Alberta Kontakt TV

On June 22, 2019 in Yoho National Park, British Columbia, Parks Canada in cooperation with the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association and the Canada First World War Internment Recognition Fund, unveiled a statue and interpretive panels commemorating the thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans who were unjustly interned during Canada's first national internment operations of 1914-1920.ion...

That Never Happened: Canada's First National Internment Operations - Official Trailer, Armistice Films

Screening schedule 2018

   

THAT NEVER HAPPENED: Canada's First National Internment Operations

 

Sept 20 - Geneva, Switzerland - United Naions - Palais de Nations

Oct 16 - Ottawa, On - Parliament Hill - Private event for MP's and Senators

Oct 21 - Fernie, BC - Vogue Theatre

Oct 23 - Calgary, AB - Globe Theatre

Oct 27 - Burlington, On - Cinestarz

Oct 28 - Mississauga, On - Cinestarz         *National Internment Commemoration Day

Nov 8 - Ottawa, On - Bytowne

​Nov 9, 10, 11 - Saskatoon, Sk - Roxy

Nov 9, 11, 12 - Edmonton, Ab - Metro Cinema - Nov 9, 9:30 pm - Nov 11, 3pm - Nov 12, 7pm

Nov 10, 11 - Regina, Sk - Rainbow 

Nov 11 - Winnipeg, Mb - Canadian Museum For Human Rights

http://armisticefilms.com/

Canadian guards & Ukrainian prisoners committed suicide 1914-1920 (Інтерновані українці Канади)

​Preview of an interview with Prof. Bohdan Kordan on "No Free Man: Canada, the Great War, and the Enemy Alien Experience", Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 13 January 2017.

The Internment Operations

​Lubomyr Luciuk, Professor at the Royal Military College of Canada, speaks with The Mark about how Canada's first national internment operations started, and who was affected.

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