canada's first national internment operations of 1914 - 1920

The commemorative notice that appeared in the June 20, 2020 Globe and Mail newspaper.


A forgotten piece of Canadian History, by Peter Manastyrsky, Winnipeg Sun, 20 June 2020

The Hon. Andrew Scheer, Leader of Canada’s Conservatives and of the Official Opposition, issues statement to mark 100 years since the end of Canada’s first national internment operations during the First World War, June 20, 2020

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The War Measures Act, August 22, 1914, Library and Archives Canada

An act to confer certain powers upon the Governor in Council and to amend the immigration act .
Acts of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada

Full text of the law giving greater powers to the government of Canada during times of war
War measures act, 1914

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The Hague Convention, International Committee of the Red Cross, October 18, 1907

Signed in 1907, the Hague Convention guaranteed the rights of prisoners of war held in camps. The rules of the Convention were not always or completely respected by Canada during the First World War. The Convention made a distinction between prisoners of war and civilians, but the Canadian authorities to a large degree ignored this distinction. The twenty-four camps that accommodated internees were mostly located away from cities, such as remote areas in the Rocky Mountains.

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Internment books

Roll Call, Lest We Forget, compiled by Lubomyr L Luciuk, Natalka Yurieva and Roman Zakaluzny

Roll Call includes nearly 5,200 internees’ names, mined mainly but not exclusively from records preserved at the National Archives of Canada.

Roll Call Additions, Lest We Forget

Roll Call includes nearly 5,200 internees’ names, mined mainly but not exclusively from records preserved at the National Archives of Canada.

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Interactive Map of the Interment camps

Interactive Google Map of Canadian First World War Internment Camps

Interactive Google Map of Project "CTO" Internment Plaques

On August 22, 2014 communities across Canada unveiled 100 plaques commemorating the 100 year anniversary of the start of Canada's first national internment operations.  "CTO" is the Ukrainian word for "One Hundred".

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Map of Internment Camps
Author of photo: By P199 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
List of Internment Camps
Canada's last known survivor of the internment operations, Mary Manko Haskett (centre)
Canada's last known survivor of the internment operations, Mary Manko Haskett (centre) with Dr L Luciuk (left) and UCCLA's chairman, John B Gregorovich (right), in Ottawa, March 1993
Private William Perchaluk 259008, Burns Cemetery, Calgary, Alberta
William Perchaluk is buried at the Burns Cemetery in Calgary, Alberta. Please see the link below for more information on his life.
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Ukrainian pioneer settlers
Ukrainian pioneer settlers en route to Edna-Star, Alberta, from Quebec City, 1897 (National Archives of Canada)
Promises of free land.
Potential Ukrainian immigrants were promised 160 acres of free land.
Corporal Filip Konowal
Corporal Filip Konowal, a recipient of the Victoria Cross for his valour during the Battle of Hill 70, near Lens, France, August 1917, the honourary patron of Branch #360 of The Royal Canadian Legion
Henry Lambert, British Under Secretary o
Britain considered the following as "Friendly aliens" Czechs, Croats, Italians (from Trieste and the Trentino), Poles, Roumanian, Ruthenes (the old name for Ukrainians), Serbs, Slovaks, and Slovenes.
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Amherst Internment Camp, Nova Scotia 

Amherst NS
Amherst, NS
Amherst, NS
Amherst, NS
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Banff National Park,Alberta, Castle mountain and cave & Basin Internment camps

Ukrainian internees at Castle Mtn
"In the enclosure," Ukrainian internees at Castle Mountain, Banff National Park, Alberta (GWH Millican Collection, Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta)
Cave & Basin Internment Camp, Banff Nati
New Arrivals Going In, Castle Mountain,
New Arrivals Going In, Castle Mountain, Banff, Alberta, Sgt. William Buck collection, Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies, Banff, Alberta
"Fire alarm," at Cave and Basin
"Fire alarm," at Cave and Basin internment camp, Banff National Park, Alberta (Gushul Collection, Glenbow Archives, Calgary, NC-54-4336)
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Beauport Internment Camp, Quebec

Beauport Internment Camp, Quebec
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Brandon Internment Camp, Manitoba

Arrested Men and Guards in Emerson, May
ArrestedArrested men being marched to Br
Ukrainian Internees in Bandon Internment
Brandon Winter Fair Building used as Int
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Edgewood Internment camp, British Columbia

Edgewood Internment Camp, BC
Edgewood Internment Camp, BC, 1916
Alien prisoners being marched to camp
Edgewood Internment Camp, BC
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Fernie and Morrisey Internment Camps, British COlumbia

Fernie Internment Camp, British Columbia
Fernie Internment Camp Kitchen, British
Big Building at Morrissey Internment Cam
Morrissey Internment Camp
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Halifax Internment camp "The Citadel", Nova Scotia

Halifax Citadel Internment Camp, NS, Int
Halifax Citadel Internment Camp, NS, Int
Halifax Citadel Internement Camp, NS, Ba
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Jasper Internment Camp, Alberta

Internees being marched from camp to the
Jasper Internment Camp, 4 miles SW of to
Jasper Internment Camp, Jasper National
Jasper Internment Camp Guards, Jasper Na
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Kapuskasing Internment Camp, Ontario

Coffin passing the compound, Kapuskasing
Under guard at Kapuskasing Internment Ca
Kapuskasing Internment Camp, Ontario
Kapuskasing Internment Camp, Ontario
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Kingston Internment camp "Fort henry", Ontario

Fort Henry Internment Camp, Kingston, On
Nick Sakaliuk (R) at Fort Henry Internme